The taxi business and barriers to entry

Look at this article from The Guardian related to Transport for London’s (TfL) attempt to regulate the huge number of private hire vehicles in the city.

Black cab drivers argue that this will protect the public and create a level playing field but Uber sees things differently.  This is an excellent example of legal barriers to entry in practice.


Macroeconomic Musings 27th September – the UK’s international trade

We should not be surprised at George Osborne’s visit to China. The current state of the UK’s external finances is not great with a current account deficit record last year of £106bn. This has to be financed and inward direct investment has been important in doing this in recent years. The Chancellor is hoping to attract some of the spare Chinese cash into major investment projects such as HS2 which will offset part of the current account deficit. (Such transactions will be recorded on the financial account).. This is an interesting reflection of the rise of the Chinese economy because, until recently, the net flow of funds was from the UK to China but it switched in 2012.

China is currently the sixth largest market for UK exports but there is considerable room for improvement – a second reason for the Chancellor’s visit. At present we provide 1.3% of their import of goods so even maintaining this percentage as China grows, will boost the UK economy. Another area of UK exports to China which should grow is ‘financial services’ as Chinese companies need to borrow and seek access to world capital markets and the rest of the world seeks to acquire yuan.

One company which shows the strength of the UK economy today is Brompton Bicycle – the up-market folding bicycle, with prices up to £1,700. The UK mass bicycle industry has largely disappeared as companies such as Raleigh have moved production to Asia. Brompton currently manufactures 50,000 machines pa and has a turnover of £30m on which it makes a 10% profit. Its major export markets are Germany, South Korea, Holland and Belgium and, both at home and abroad, it focusses on quality, stressing the hand-made element in its production process, and the way consumers can design their own model. However because of high demand, particularly from overseas, it is expanding its capacity this year to produce 100,000 machines.

To investigate them further, try their website:

Old Brentwood Sir Charlie Bean, has been in the news  since he is undertaking a review into government statistics. A major issue for him is how the ONS should take account of recent changes in the way we purchase goods and services.For example in the past one booked a holiday at a travel agent whose commission was counted in the GDP. Now we often  do it ourselves on-line so it appears that GDP has gone down because the commission has been lost.

Better broadband – an improvement in aggregate supply?

The government have commented on a number of occasions that the poor broadband speeds experienced by many businesses, especially in rural areas, are limiting productivity and so reducing growth in the level of long run aggregate supply in the economy.  This article from “The Daily Telegraph” suggests that BT is ready to improve broadband speeds around the country.  As a result long run aggregate supply may well be increased.

It is interesting to note, however, that BT has been prompted to undertake this work by the threat of having part of the business, Openreach, made independent.  Therefore, there may be a competition issue here in the long run.