Government proposes energy drinks ban for children – BBC News

High levels of sugar and caffeine have been linked to obesity and other health issues.

Source: Government proposes energy drinks ban for children – BBC News

Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sugar. A can of Monster, for example, includes 160mg of caffeine and 55g of sugar. Such high levels can create physical and mental health problems for consumers, these are known as ‘private costs’. However, excessive levels can also create spillover costs for third parties, for example, lower productivity at work or increased pressure on the NHS. These costs are known as external costs or ‘negative externalities’. The problem is that the market tends to ignore these costs resulting in an inefficient allocation of resources. In order to reduce consumption, the government has a series of options. Recently we have seen the introduction of a sugar tax, which should increases firms costs and lead to higher prices. However, the government has decided they need to take more direct action on energy drinks by using an alternative means of intervention, regulation. Approximately 68% of buyers of energy drinks in the EU are aged 10-18, so the UK ban is likely to have a significant effect on firms revenues and profits. One issue for the government is that, unlike a tax, which raises revenue, regulation needs enforcement, which creates administrative costs. There is also an alternative view, that consumers should be free to make their own choices. However, that, in my view, is a difficult case to make when you think about the relentless efforts of the marketing departments at Red Bull et al and the fact that so many of the buyers are children.

Advertisements

Pesticide found to harm bees faces ban across EU

The European Food Safety Authority (Efsa) has concluded that neonicotinoids harm bees to the extent that an outright ban could be imposed. Clearly, we can conclude that the external costs of production, neonicotinoid is an insecticide used in farming, are so high that the socially optimal level of output is zero. Bees are important “as they pollinate three-quarters of all crops”. In recent years their numbers have plummeted and studies suggest that neonicotinoids are a significant cause. Expect any regulation or ban to increase costs to EU farmers. It will be interesting to see if the UK will adopt such measures, post-Brexit. If not, it could mean that British farmers see tariffs levied on any exports to the EU. I suspect, under current Environment Minister, Michael Gove, the UK will look to follow Efsa guidance.

Read the original Guardian article here.

Pub smoking ban: 10 charts that show the impact – BBC News

It’s 10 years since smoking in enclosed public spaces was banned in England. What has the impact been?

Source: Pub smoking ban: 10 charts that show the impact – BBC News

This is an excellent article, written by an old uni friend of mine, exploring the impact of restrictions on where people can smoke. Cigarettes are considered by economists as a demerit good, one that generates negative externalities through consumption. These externalities, costs to a third party, can occur in many ways, for example, the adverse effects on the health of bar workers. The ban has helped to reduce the number of people smoking in the UK, although it still remains predominantly a habit of the poor. However, it is important to note that changes to packaging legislation and increased duties may have helped to reduce the number too. A reduction in the number of smokers helps to reduce the pressure on the NHS of treating tobacco-related illness, although, of course, if people live longer then other, perhaps more expensive treamtents, need to be paid for. An unintended consequence has been the impact on pubs, a number are closing creating unemployment in the process. Again, however, other factors, such as a general reduction in alcohol consumption and cheaper substitutes, i.e. buying beer from a supermarket, will have had an effect.

This is a nice example of how a number of government interventions can be used to correct the market failure associated with a demerit good.

The Economist | Deep trouble

The Economist | Deep trouble

The deep sea is a frequently used example of common access resources that is over-exploited  – a case of ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’ originally coined by ecologist, Garrett Hardin. It stems from a simple idea that the benefits of over-fishing (increased revenues) are private while the costs are shared. Unfortunately, such an approach is unsustainable as a result of over-consumption and subsequent market failure. Technology is both a cause of the problem and a solution too. Larger trawlers increase catch size reducing the number left to breed. However, new technology can help to monitor, collect information and enforce regulation. One extreme proposal is to ban fishing in set zones, this has been effective in some trials allowing fish to ‘restock’ and improve sustainability. Clearly, an international agreement is required, but this is hard, especially given the current rise in nationalism and self-interest. The WTO are working on something, but have been doing so for several years.

Nimble entrepreneurs seek solutions to air quality crisis | The Guardian

With 55% of Chinese consumers looking to reduce pollution exposure and a London mayor focused on clean air policies, the market is growing

Source: Nimble entrepreneurs seek solutions to air quality crisis | Guardian Small Business Network | The Guardian

A standard market failure essay question would ask you to consider whether government intervention is required to correct a market failure or would it be best left to market forces. This article explores the role of the latter in the context of air pollution and the growth in the number of firms producing goods to both monitor and reduce the impact of air pollution.

The Economist | Information asymmetry: Secrets and agents

http://www.economist.com/news/economics-brief/21702428-george-akerlofs-1970-paper-market-lemons-foundation-stone-information?frsc=dg%7Ca

The Economist starts its series of economics briefs with information asymmetry, its beauty lies in its simplicity. Very recently my car failed its MOT. The garage called to say repairs would cost £580 – seeking to exploit my imperfect knowledge of prices and the mechanics of my car. A few phone calls later and I managed to find a local garage willing to do the same repairs for £400. A return call to the original garage found that they would match the price, a saving of £180. I suspect many would not have bothered, I almost said “go ahead” myself, converting consumer surplus into producer surplus in the process. George Akerlof, in his seminal work ‘The market for lemons’, explains that information asymmetry is a very common cause of market failure, when economic thinking at the time was that buyers and sellers had sufficient access to information to make rational decisions, clearly rubbish.